RULE 1 The Game, Field, Players and Equipment

SECTION 1. General Provisions

The Game

ARTICLE 1. a. The game shall be played between two teams of not more than 11 players each, on a rectangular field and with an inflated ball having the shape of a prolate spheroid.

b. A team legally may play with fewer than 11 players, but a foul for an illegal formation occurs if the following requirements are not met:

1. When the ball is free-kicked, at least four Team A players are on each side of the kicker (Rule 6-1-2-c).

2. At the snap, at least five players wearing jerseys numbered 50 through 79 are on the offensive scrimmage line and no more than four players are in the backfield (Rules 2-21-2, 2-27-4 and 7-1-3-b-1) (Exception: Rule 1-4-2-b). (A.R. 1-4-2:I-V)

Goal Lines

ARTICLE 2. Goal lines, one for each team, shall be established at opposite ends of the field of play, and each team shall be allowed opportunities to advance the ball across the other team's goal line by running, passing or kicking it.

Winning Team and Final Score

ARTICLE 3. a. The teams shall be awarded points for scoring according to rule and, unless the game is forfeited, the team having the larger score at the end of the game, including extra periods, shall be the winning team.

b. When the referee declares that the game is ended, the score is final.

Supervision

ARTICLE 4. a. The game shall be played under the supervision of either four, five, six or seven officials: a referee, an umpire, a linesman, a line judge, a back judge, a field judge and a side judge. The use of a back judge, field judge and side judge is optional. The game may be played under the supervision of three officials under exceptional circumstances such as injury or delay in travel.

b. Officiating crews will be assigned from the same officiating organisation.

Team Captains

ARTICLE 5. a. Each team shall designate to the referee not more than four players as its field captain(s), and one player at a time shall speak for his team in all dealings with the officials. There shall be not more than four captains from each team at the coin toss.

b. A field captain's first announced choice of any options offered his team shall be irrevocable.

c. Any player may request a team charged timeout.

Persons Subject to the Rules

ARTICLE 6. a. All persons in the team area are subject to the rules and are governed by the decisions of the officials.

b. All players, substitutes, replaced players, coaches, trainers, cheerleaders in uniform, band members in uniform, mascots in uniform, commercial mascots, public-address announcers, audio and video system operators, and other persons affiliated with the teams are subject to the rules and are governed by the decisions of the officials. The names of all persons subject to rules shall appear on a roster form which shall be given to the referee before kickoff (Exception: cheerleaders, band members, mascots and public address announcers).

Teams Subject to the Rules

ARTICLE 7. a. Teams that are members of BAFA or affiliated competitions shall conduct all contests in Great Britain under the official football-playing rules of the Association (Exception: games played under the auspices of an international organisation).

b. Teams not complying with football-playing rules that do not have a designated penalty are subject to competition and/or BAFA sanctions.

SECTION 2. The Field

Dimensions

ARTICLE 1. The field shall be a rectangular area with dimensions, lines, zones, goals and pylons as indicated and titled in the field diagram.

a. Where it is not possible to fully mark the field as indicated:

1. The marking of the following lines is mandatory: sidelines, end lines, goal lines, yard lines at 5-yard intervals, inbounds lines.

2. Where the size of the stadium does not permit a full-sized field to be marked:

(a) The end zones must be a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 13 yards in depth and equal in size.

(b) It is strongly recommended that the end zones be marked to the depth of 10 yards specified by rule, and that if necessary to accommodate this, the distance between the goal lines should be reduced to 90 yards.

(c) The distance between the goal lines must be a whole multiple of 10 yards.

(d) If the marked end zones are found to be less than 7 yards deep, the referee shall order the 5-yard line be used as the goal line and the length of the field of play reduced accordingly.

3. The field of play shall be marked to a length of not less than 90 yards. The field of play shall be marked to a width of 160 feet.

b. All field dimension lines shown should be marked 4 inches in width with a white, nontoxic material that is not injurious to the eyes or skin (Exception: Sidelines and end lines may exceed 4 inches in width, goal lines may be 4 or 8 inches in width, and Rule 1-2-1-h).

c. Twenty-four inch short yard-line extensions, four inches inside the sidelines and at the inbounds lines, are recommended and all yard lines shall be four inches from the sidelines (Rule 2-12-7). If for any reason it is not possible for all yard-line extensions to be marked, those at the inbounds lines should be marked first, followed by the sideline opposite the press box, followed by the press box sideline.

d. A solid white area between the sideline and the coaching line is recommended.

e. White field markings or contrasting decorative markings (e.g. logos, team names, emblems, event) are permissible in the end zones but shall not be closer than four feet to any line.

f. Contrasting colouring in the end zones may abut any line.

g. Contrasting decorative markings are permissible within the sidelines and between the goal lines, but shall not obliterate yard lines, goal lines or sidelines.

h. Goal lines may be of one contrasting colour from the white lines.

i. Advertising is permissible on the field, providing it meets the requirements of Rules 1-2-1-e and 1-2-1-f.

j. White field yard-line numbers not larger than 6 feet in height and 4 feet in width, with the tops of the numbers nine yards from the sidelines, are recommended.

k. White directional arrows next to the field numbers (except the 50) indicating the direction toward the nearest goal line are recommended. The arrow is a triangle with an 18-inch base and two sides that are 36 inches each.

l. The two inbounds lines (hash marks) are 60 feet from the sidelines. Inbounds lines and short yard-line extensions should measure 24 inches in length.

m. Nine-yard marks 12 inches in length, every 10 yards, shall be located nine yards from the sidelines. They are not required if the field is numbered according to Rule 1-2-1-j.

STOP, REPORT & SANCTION -
Under no circumstances may the game commence, nor proceed if suspended. Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: One or both sidelines is incomplete. One or both goal lines is incomplete. One or both end lines is incomplete. One or more yard lines across the field at least every 10 yards is incomplete (from 2012).
REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Absence of any mandatory marking (sideline, end line, goal line, yard lines at 5-yard intervals, inbounds lines). End zones smaller than 7 yards or bigger than 13 yards in depth, or where the end zones are not of equal size. Field of play less than 90 yards in length or not a multiple of 10 yards. Field of play not 160 feet in width. White field markings closer than four feet to an end zone line. Absence of nine-yard marks if the field is not numbered according to Rule 1-2-1-j.

Marking Boundary Areas

ARTICLE 2. Measurements shall be from the inside edges of the boundary markings. The entire width of each goal line shall be in the end zone.

Limit Lines

ARTICLE 3. a. Limit lines should be marked with 12-inch lines and at 24-inch intervals 12 feet outside the sidelines and the end lines, except in stadiums where the total field surface does not permit. In these stadiums, the limit lines shall not be less than six feet from the sidelines and end lines. Limit lines should be 4 inches in width and may be yellow. Limit lines designating team areas shall be solid lines. No person outside the team area shall be within the limit lines.

b. No person outside the team area shall be inside the limit lines. Game management personnel have the responsibility and authority to enforce this rule.

c. Limit lines shall also be marked six feet from the team area around the side and back of the team area, if the stadium permits.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Limit lines closer than six feet to any boundary line.

Team Area and Coaching Box

ARTICLE 4. a. On each side of the field, a team area behind the limit line and between the 25-yard lines shall be marked for the exclusive use of substitutes, trainers and other persons affiliated with the team. The front of the coaching box shall be marked with a solid line six feet outside the sideline between the 25-yard lines. The area between the coaching line and the limit line between the 25-yard lines should contain white diagonal lines or be marked distinctly for use of coaches (Rule 9-1-6). A 4-inch-by-4-inch mark is recommended at each five-yard line extended between the goal lines as an extension of the coaching line for line-to-gain and down indicator six-foot reference points.

b. The team area shall be limited to persons named on the team roster including squad members in full uniform and a maximum of 40 other individuals directly involved in the game. All persons in the team area are subject to the rules and are governed by decisions of the officials (Rule 1-1-6). "Full uniform" is defined as being equipped in accord with these Football Rules and Interpretations, and ready to play. The 40 individuals not in full uniform shall wear special team area credentials.

1. A credential shall consist of a piece of card or plastic at least 3.4-inch by 2.1-inch in size, and worn either attached to the bearer's upper body clothing, attached to their belt or hung from their neck in such a manner as to be visible at all times.

2. Those who are currently registered members of a coaching organisation recognised by the governing body shall wear credentials that are prominently light blue in colour.

3. Those who are medical personnel, trainers or physiotherapists shall wear credentials that are prominently red in colour.

4. Other persons shall wear credentials that are prominently yellow in colour.

5. The credential shall carry the bearer's name and governing body registration number. No other credential is valid for the team area.

c. Coaches are permitted in the area between the limit line and coaching line between the 25-yard lines. This area is the coaching box.

d. Marking the team areas from the 25-yard lines is a game management requirement.

1. The team areas shall be marked between the 25-yard lines irrespective of the length of the field.

e. In stadiums where the playing enclosure does not permit the team areas to be marked on both sides of the field, both teams may share a common sideline. In this case the team areas shall be marked on either side of midfield between the 5-yard line and the line 5 yards from midfield.

f. No media personnel, including journalists, radio and television personnel, or their equipment, shall be in the team area or coaching box, and no media personnel shall communicate in any way with persons in the team area or coaching box. In stadiums where the team area extends to the spectator seating area, a pass-through area should be made available for media to move from one end of the field to the other on both sides of the field.

g. Game management shall remove all persons not authorised by rule.

h. Practice kicking nets are not permitted outside the team area (Exception: In stadiums where playing enclosures are limited in size, nets, holders and kickers are permitted outside the team area and outside the limit line) (Rule 9-2-1-b-1).

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Absence of coaching line, team area markings, or team area not marked to 25-yard lines. Media personnel in team area or coaching box. Persons in team area not wearing proper credentials. Game management failure to remove unauthorised persons from team area. Practice kicking nets outside the team area (except where permitted).

Goals

ARTICLE 5. a. Each goal shall consist of two uprights extending at least 20 feet above the ground with a connecting horizontal crossbar, the top of which is 10 feet above the ground. The uprights and crossbar should be white or yellow in colour. The inside of the uprights and crossbar should be in the same vertical plane as the inside edge of the end line.

1. The goal posts shall be out of bounds.
STOP, REPORT & SANCTION -
Under no circumstances may the game commence, nor proceed if suspended. Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Goal posts inbounds.

2. Regardless of the position of the goal posts, the size of the end zone or the distance between the goal lines, the snap on a try play shall be made from any point on or behind Team B's 3-yard line (Rule 8-3-2-c).

b. Above the crossbar, the uprights should be white or yellow and 18 feet, six inches apart inside to inside.

c. The designated uprights and crossbar shall be free of decorative material (Exception: 4-inch-by-42-inch orange or red wind directional streamers at the top of the uprights are permitted).

d. The height of the crossbar shall be measured from the top of each end of the crossbar to the ground directly below.

e. Goal posts shall be padded with resilient material from the ground to a height of at least six feet. Advertising is permitted on the goals. One manufacturer's logo or trademark is permitted on each goal post pad. Team and competition logos are allowed.

f. The following procedure will be adopted when one or both goals are missing or have been taken down and the original goals are not available for a try or field goal attempt:

1. If a portable goal is available, it shall be erected or held in place at the request of Team A.

2. If a portable goal is not available but one goal is in place:

(a) On all scrimmage plays, Team B shall defend the end of the field where the goal is situated.

(b) On all free kick plays, Team A shall defend the end of the field where the goal is situated.

(c) After a change of possession, the teams will change ends if necessary so that Team B is defending the end where the goal is situated.

(d) There will be no change of ends at the end of the first or third periods (one minute timeout only). Captains will not have the option to select which goal line to defend at the beginning of a half.

3. Alternatively, if one goal is missing or unusable, the game may proceed without using the other goal, if both head coaches agree. Once stated, the coaches' decisions as to whether to proceed without goals shall be irrevocable.

4. If no goals are available, the game may be played if both head coaches agree. In these circumstances no field goals shall be scored. If one or both head coaches do not wish to play, then the game shall be abandoned. Once stated, the coaches' decisions as to whether to start/continue shall be irrevocable.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Uprights less than 20 feet in height, or crossbar not 10 feet above ground. Decorative material on the posts or crossbar. Padding on goal posts absent or less than six feet in height. One or both goals missing or taken down.
REPORT -
Coaches agree to play without goals.

Approved Ruling 1-2-5

  1. Upon inspection of the field it is noted that goals with offset uprights are being used. The plane of the goal is one yard within the end zone and the post is one yard outside it. RULING: Legal. The goal post is not inbounds.

Pylons

ARTICLE 6. Soft flexible four-sided pylons 4 inches by 4 inches with an overall height of 18 inches, which may include a two-inch space between the bottom of the pylon and the ground, are recommended. They should be red or orange in colour and placed at the inside corners of the eight intersections of the sidelines with the goal lines and end lines. The pylons marking the intersections of the end lines and inbounds lines extended shall be placed three feet off the end lines. Pylons marking the intersections of the end lines, goal lines and sidelines which do not meet the requirements of this rule (for example traffic cones) must be placed at least six feet outside the sideline. Soccer corner-flag style posts are prohibited.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Illegal pylons that had to be removed.

Line-to-Gain and Down Indicators

ARTICLE 7. The official line-to-gain and down indicators shall be operated approximately six feet outside the sideline opposite the press box, except in stadiums where the total playing enclosure does not permit.

a. The yardage chain shall join two rods not less than five feet high, the rods' inside edges being exactly 10 yards apart when the chain is fully extended.

b. The down indicator shall be mounted on a rod not less than five feet high operating approximately six feet outside the sideline opposite the press box.

c. An unofficial auxiliary line-to-gain indicator and an unofficial down indicator six feet outside the other sideline are recommended.

d. Unofficial red or orange nonslip line-to-gain ground markers positioned off the sidelines on both sides of the field are recommended. Markers are rectangular, weighted material 10 inches by 32 inches. A triangle with an altitude of five inches is attached to the rectangle at the end toward the sideline.

e. All line-to-gain and down-indicator rods shall have flat ends.

f. Advertising is permitted on the down and line-to-gain indicators. One manufacturer's logo or trademark is permitted on each indicator. Team and competition logos are allowed.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Rods not of minimum height or not with flat ends. Repeated breakages of the line-to-gain or down indicators. Failure to provide line-to-gain or down indicators.

Markers and Obstructions

ARTICLE 8. a. All markers and obstructions within the playing enclosure shall be placed or constructed in such a manner as to avoid any possible hazard to players. This includes anything dangerous to anyone at the limit lines.

b. After the officials' pregame inspection of the playing enclosure, the referee shall order removed any hazardous obstructions or markers located inside the limit lines.

c. The referee shall report to game management personnel any markers or obstructions constituting a hazard within the playing enclosure but outside the limit lines. Final determination of corrective action shall be the responsibility of game management personnel.

d. After the officials have completed their pregame inspection of the playing enclosure, it is the responsibility of game management personnel to ensure that the playing enclosure remains safe throughout the game.

e. Yardage line markers must be placed at least 12 feet outside the sidelines and should be collapsible and constructed in such a manner as to avoid any possible hazard to players. Markers which do not conform to this standard shall be removed.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Markers that are not constructed and/or placed to avoid hazard and had to be removed.

Field Surface

ARTICLE 9. a. No material or device shall be used to improve or degrade the playing surface or other conditions and give one player or team an advantage (Exception: Rules 2-16-4-b and 2-16-4-c).

PENALTY -
Live-ball foul. Five yards from the previous spot [S27].

b. The referee may require any improvement in the field necessary for proper and safe game administration.

REPORT -
Any improvement effected by the referee.

c. The referee shall not allow the game to commence if there is any trip hazard inbounds or within six feet of the boundary lines. A trip hazard is defined to be any change of height of one inch or more in the space of one inch or less, with the exception of holes less than two inches in diameter.

STOP, REPORT & SANCTION -
Under no circumstances may the game commence, nor proceed if suspended. Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Trip hazard(s).

d. In stadia where discus circles or other objects present a different playing surface, it is strongly recommended that the field of play be shortened to avoid different surfaces in the field of play or end zones.

e. The referee should make every effort to play the game at the place and time specified, and to make a report to the appropriate authority as soon as possible afterwards. However, if the markings and facilities available on a field are, in the judgement of the referee, so inadequate as to call into question the validity of the game or the safety of players, spectators or officials, then the game shall not proceed unless and until an improvement has been effected.

STOP, REPORT & SANCTION -
Under no circumstances may the game commence, nor proceed if suspended. Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Markings or facilities inadequate for game to proceed.

SECTION 3. The Ball

Specifications

ARTICLE 1. The ball shall meet the following specifications:

a. New or nearly new. (A nearly new ball is a ball that has not been altered and retains the properties and qualities of a new ball.)

b. Cover consisting of four panels of pebble-grained leather without corrugations other than seams.

c. One set of eight equally spaced lacings.

d. Natural tan colour.

e. Two 1-inch white stripes that are 3 to 3 inches from the end of the ball and located only on the two panels adjacent to the laces. For the 2010 and 2010-11 seasons, these stripes are recommended. From the 2011 season onwards, these stripes are mandatory.

f. Conforms to maximum and minimum dimensions and shape indicated in the accompanying diagram.

g. Inflated to the pressure of 12 to 13 pounds per square inch (psi).

h. Weight of 14 to 15 ounces.

i. The ball may not be altered. This includes the use of any ball-drying substance. Mechanical ball-drying devices are not permitted near the sidelines or in the team area.

Administration and Enforcement

ARTICLE 2. a. The game officials shall test and be sole judge of not fewer than three and not more than six balls offered for play before and during the game. The game officials may approve additional balls if warranted by conditions.

b. Home management should provide a pressure pump and measuring device.

c. The home team is responsible for providing legal balls and should notify the opponent of the ball to be used.

d. During the entire game, both teams shall use only balls that meet the required specifications and have been measured and tested according to rule.

e. All balls to be used must be presented to the referee for testing at least 60 minutes before the start of the game. Once the teams have presented the game balls to the referee, they remain under the general supervision of the officials throughout the game.

1. The referee's first priority is to have three legal balls. If the home team does not provide at least three legal balls, the referee shall inform the away team and give them the opportunity to provide legal balls. If fewer than three legal balls are provided, the game will proceed with only the legal ball(s) being used. If no legal balls are provided, the referee shall select up to three balls which in his judgement are the best available.

2. When more than three legal balls are presented, the referee shall select the balls in best condition from those presented by both teams.

3. Where competition regulations mandate the use of balls of a particular manufacture, and more than three legal balls are presented to the referee, the referee shall only select balls of another manufacture if there are fewer than three balls of the mandated manufacture.

f. When the ball becomes dead in a side zone, is unfit for play, is subject to measurement in a side zone or is inaccessible, a replacement ball shall be obtained from a ball person. (A.R. 1-3-2:I-II)

g. The referee or umpire shall determine the legality of each ball before it is put in play.

h. The following procedures shall be used when measuring a ball:

1. All measurements shall be made after the ball is legally inflated.

2. The long circumference shall be measured around the ends of the ball but not over the laces.

3. The long diameter shall be measured with calipers from end to end but not in the nose indentation.

4. The short circumference shall be measured around the ball, over the valve, over the lace, but not over the cross lace.

i. In wet conditions (or if the referee deems that conditions warrant it), teams must provide towels for the umpire and ball persons to use to keep the ball dry. All towels should be white.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Home team provides fewer than three legal balls. No towels are provided when conditions warrant it. No balls with white stripes (from 2011).

Approved Ruling 1-3-2

  1. On fourth down, kicker A1 enters the field with an approved game ball and requests the referee to substitute it for the ball used during the previous down. RULING: Substitution of the ball is not permitted ( 1-3-2-f). [Cited by 1-3-2-f]
  2. The referee selected from those offered before the game two of the home team's balls and one of the away team's. After a change of possession, the away team asks for its ball to be used in place of one of the other two. RULING: The request is denied. Once the referee has selected the game balls to be used, neither team may request that a particular ball be used in a particular situation ( 1-3-2-f). [Cited by 1-3-2-f]

Marking Balls

ARTICLE 3. Marking a ball indicating a preference for any player or any situation is prohibited.

PENALTY -
Live-ball foul. Fifteen yards from the previous spot [S27].

SECTION 4. Players and Playing Equipment

Recommended Numbering

ARTICLE 1. It is strongly recommended that offensive players be numbered according to the following diagram that shows one of many offensive formations (Rule 1-4-2-b):

Player's Numbering

ARTICLE 2. a. All players shall be numbered 1 through 99. Any number preceded by zero ("0") is illegal [S23].

b. No two players of the same team shall participate in the same down wearing identical numbers [S23]. (A.R. 1-4-2:II)

c. Markings in the vicinity of the numbers are not permitted [S23]. (A.R. 1-4-2:III)

PENALTY -
[a-c] Live-ball foul. Five yards from the previous spot [S19 or S23].

d. Numbers shall not be changed during the game to deceive opponents [S27]. (A.R. 1-4-2:VI and VII)

PENALTY -
Live-ball foul, unsportsmanlike conduct. 15 yards from the previous spot [S27]. Flagrant offenders shall be disqualified [S47].

Approved Ruling 1-4-2

  1. Team A, with fourth down and eight yards to gain, sends two substitutes numbered 21 and 33 into the game as exceptions to the mandatory numbering, and they are positioned legally on their line of scrimmage between the end players on the line of scrimmage. After the ball is snapped, a Team A player, 15 yards deep in a scrimmage kick formation, throws a forward pass to an eligible receiver for a 10-yard gain. RULING: Legal play. (Note: The same play from a field goal formation is legal.) ( 1-4-2-b Exception) [Cited by 1-1-1-b-2, 2-16-10-a, 7-1-3-b-1-Exception]
  2. During a down either team is discovered to have two players with identical numbers at the snap. RULING: Penalty - five yards from previous spot ( 1-4-2-b). [Cited by 1-1-1-b-2, 1-4-2-b]
  3. A13 at the snap is wearing a number that has a dash between the 1 and 3. The number appears as 1-3. RULING: Penalty - five yards from the previous spot ( 1-4-2-c). [Cited by 1-1-1-b-2, 1-4-2-c]
  4. A33, an exception to the mandatory numbering rule, assumes a position on the line of scrimmage next to end A88. Before the snap, A88 shifts to a backfield position with the flanker on the opposite side of the line shifting to an end position on the line. RULING: Illegal formation. Since A33 is now an end, he is in an illegal position at the snap (live-ball foul). Penalty -- five yards, previous spot. [Cited by 1-1-1-b-2]
  5. A33, an exception to the mandatory numbering rule, assumes a position on the line of scrimmage to the left of snapper A85, who is on the end of the line. All other Team A players on the line are to A33's left. After a one-second stop, all players on the line except A85 legally shift to the other side of the ball, with A33 now positioned as an end. RULING: If the ball is snapped with A33 in this position, it is a foul for an illegal formation. A33 must be between the end players at the snap. Penalty -- five yards, previous spot. [Cited by 1-1-1-b-2]
  6. A team has a player who normally wears the number 63 but who wishes to become an eligible receiver at some point during the game. RULING: The player should be entered on the roster both under number 63 and under an available number other than 50-79 and the referee and opposing coach notified of this. During the game, the player may change jerseys between his two numbers at any time while he is off the field, but on returning to the field for the first time after any change he must notify the referee who in turn will notify the opposing field captain so that the opposition is not deceived by the change. [Cited by 1-4-2-d]
  7. A player's jersey is so badly torn that it must be changed. No other jersey is available with the same number. RULING: The player may switch to a jersey with a different number (eligibility rules still apply) but on returning to the field for the first time after any change he must notify the referee who in turn will notify the opposing field captain so that the opposition is not deceived by the change. The referee should record the change on the roster form. [Cited by 1-4-2-d]

Mandatory equipment

ARTICLE 3. All players must wear the following mandatory equipment:

a. Helmet.

b. Hip pads.

c. Jersey.

d. Knee pads.

e. Mouthpiece.

f. Pants.

g. Shoulder pads.

h. Socks.

i. Thigh guards.

Specifications: Mandatory Equipment

ARTICLE 4. a. Helmet.

1. The helmet must be fitted with a facemask and a secured four- or six-point chin strap, all points of which must be secured whenever the ball is in play.

2. Helmets for all players of a team should be of the same colour and design. 3. Helmets must carry a warning label regarding the risk of injury and a manufacturer's or reconditioner's certification indicating satisfaction of National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test standards. Reconditioned helmets shall show recertification to indicate satisfaction with the NOCSAE test standard.

b. Hip pads. Hip pads must include a tailbone protector.

c. Jersey.

1. Design. The jersey must have sleeves that completely cover the shoulder pads. It must not be altered or designed to tear. It must conform with Rule 1-4-5 and paragraph 3 below. The jersey should be full-length and tucked into the pants. Vests and/or a second jersey worn concurrently during the game are prohibited. Tee-shirts or other similar garments may be worn under shoulder pads.

2. Colour. See Rule 1-4-5 for specifications regarding colours of jerseys. 3. Numerals. The jersey must have clearly visible, permanent Arabic numerals measuring at least 8 and 10 inches in height front and back, respectively, of a colour(s) in distinct contrast with the jersey. All players of a team should have the same colour and style numbers front and back. The individual bars must be approximately 1 inches wide. Numbers on any part of the uniform shall correspond with the mandatory front and back jersey numbers.

d. Knee pads. Knee pads must be at least -inch thick and must be covered by pants. It is strongly recommended that they cover the knees. No pads or protective equipment may be worn outside the pants.

e. Mouthpiece. The mouthpiece must be an intra-oral device of any readily visible colour. It must not be white or transparent. It must be made with FDA-approved base materials (FDCS) and cover all upper teeth. It is recommended that the mouthpiece be properly fitted.

f. Pants. Players of a team should wear pants of the same colour and design.

g. Shoulder pads. There are no specifications for shoulder pads. (See Appendix E.)

h. Socks. Players of a team must wear socks or leg coverings that should be identical in colour and design. (Exception: Unaltered knee braces, tape or a bandage to protect or prevent an injury, and barefoot kickers)

i. Thigh guards. There are no specifications for thigh guards. (See Appendix E.)

Approved Ruling 1-4-4

  1. A player or players of a team wear(s) tights (with stirrups) that cover their legs. RULING: Legal. All other squad members of this team also must wear tights or knee-length socks of the same colour. All squad members of a team should wear socks or leg coverings that are identical in colour and design. All squad members of a team may wear short socks of the same colour and design.

Jersey Colour and Design

ARTICLE 5. a. Players of opposing teams shall wear jerseys of contrasting colours. In the event of a clash, the home team shall have first choice of colour (including white). Players of a team shall wear jerseys of the same colour and design.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Both teams are playing in the same predominant jersey colour. Players of a team not wearing jerseys of the same colour and design.

b. Other than the player's numbers, the jersey may only contain: Player's name; team name; sleeve stripes; insignia for team, competition mascot, game memorial, or the military; authorised advertising material; or the team's national flag.

c. Any insignia must not exceed 16 square inches in area (i.e. rectangle, square, parallelogram), including any additional material (e.g. patch).

d. A border around the collar and cuffs not more than 1 inch wide is permissible, as is a maximum 4-inch stripe along the side seam (insert from the underarm to pants top).

e. If a coloured jersey contains white, it may appear only as any of the items listed in paragraph b above.

f. Jerseys may not be be taped or tied in any manner.

Optional equipment

ARTICLE 6. The following items are legal:

a. Towels and hand warmers.

1. Solid white towels no larger than 4 inches by 12 inches with no words, symbols, letters, or numbers. Towels may bear the team logo.

2. Hand warmers worn during inclement weather.

b. Gloves.

1. A glove is a fitted covering for a hand having separate sections for each finger and thumb, without any additional material that connects any of the fingers and/or thumb, and that completely covers each finger and thumb. There is no restriction on the colour of gloves.

2. Gloves should have a securely attached label or stamp ("NF/NCAA Specifications") indicating voluntary compliance with test specifications on file with the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, unless made of unaltered plain cloth.

c. Eye shields. Eye shields must be clear, not tinted, and made from moulded or rigid material. No medical exceptions are allowed.

d. Insignia.

1. Persons or events may be memorialised by an insignia not greater than 1 inches in diameter on the uniform or helmet.

2. Team decals are allowed on helmets

e. Eye shade. Any shading under a player's eyes must be solid black with no words, numbers, logos or other symbols.

f. Game information. Any player may have written game information on the wrist or arm.

Illegal equipment

ARTICLE 7. Illegal equipment includes the following (see Appendix E for additional details):

a. Equipment worn by a player that could endanger other players.

b. Tape or any bandage other than that used to protect an injury, subject to approval by the umpire.

c. Hard, abrasive or unyielding equipment that is not completely covered and padded, subject to the approval of the umpire.

d. Cleats that extend more than inch from the base of the shoe (See Appendix E for full specifications).

e. Any equipment that could confuse or deceive an opponent.

f. Any equipment that could provide an unfair advantage to any player.

g. Adhesive material, paint, grease or any other slippery substance applied to equipment or on a player's person, clothing or attachment (Exception: Eye shade (Rule 1-4-6-e)).

h. Uniform attachments other than towels (Rule 1-4-6-a).

i. Rib pads, shoulder pad attachments and back protectors that are not totally covered.

Approved Ruling 1-4-7

  1. A33 is wearing a bandanna under his helmet, with part of the bandanna protruding from underneath the back of the helmet. RULING: Illegal. Bandannas may be worn under the helmet as long as no part of the bandanna is visible when the helmet is in place. The visible bandanna is considered a uniform attachment. Team A is charged one of its three timeouts for the half. If its timeouts are expended, the penalty is five yards from the succeeding spot.
  2. During a charged Team B timeout, B33 removes his helmet while on the field of play and is wearing a bandanna. RULING: Team B is charged with an additional timeout. If its timeouts are exhausted, Team B will be penalised five yards at the succeeding spot (Rules 3-3-6 and 3-4-2-b-2).
  3. Both teams come onto the field before the game wearing coloured jerseys. The visiting team has not obtained written agreement from the home team to wear other than white jerseys, or if such agreement has been obtained the home team's competition has not certified that the jerseys are of contrasting colours. RULING: Foul by the visiting team for violation of the jersey-color rule. A 15-yard penalty will be assessed at the succeeding spot after the ball is dead following the opening kickoff of each half. If the opening kickoff of a half is returned for a touchdown, the 15-yard penalty is assessed either on the try or the kickoff.

Mandatory and Illegal Equipment Enforcement

ARTICLE 8. a. No player wearing illegal equipment shall be permitted to play.

b. If an official discovers illegal equipment, the team shall be charged a team timeout. If equipment becomes illegal through play, the player may not participate until corrections are made. There will not be a charged team timeout.

c. Each of the first three infractions in a half carries a charged team timeout, if timeouts are available. Any infraction after a team has exhausted its timeouts is a foul for delay of game and carries a five-yard penalty.

Coaches' Certification

ARTICLE 9. The head coach or his designated representative shall certify in writing to the umpire before the game that all players:

a. Have been informed what equipment is mandatory by rule and what constitutes illegal equipment.

b. Have been provided with the equipment mandated by rule.

c. Have been instructed to wear and how to wear mandatory equipment during the game.

d. Have been instructed to notify the coaching staff when equipment becomes illegal through play during the game.

Prohibited Signal Devices

ARTICLE 10. Players are prohibited from being equipped with any electronic, mechanical or other signal devices for the purpose of communicating with any source (Exception: A medically prescribed hearing aid of the sound-amplifier type for hearing-impaired players).

PENALTY -
Administer as a dead-ball foul, 15 yards at the succeeding spot. Player is disqualified. [S7, S27, S47].

Prohibited Field Equipment

ARTICLE 11. a. Television replay or monitor equipment is prohibited at the sidelines, press box or other locations within the playing enclosure for coaching purposes during the game. Motion pictures, any type of film, facsimile machines, videotapes, photographs, writing-transmission machines and computers may not be used by coaches or for coaching purposes any time during the game or between periods. (Exception: Monitors may only be used to view the live telecast or webcast. The home team is responsible for assuring identical television capability in the coaches' booths of both teams. This capability may not include replay equipment or recorders.)

b. Only voice communication between the press box and team area is permitted. Where press-box space is not adequate, only voice communication may originate from any area in the stands between the 25-yard lines extended to the top of the stadium. No other communication for coaching purposes is permitted anywhere else.

c. Media communication equipment, including cameras, sound devices, computers and microphones, is prohibited on or above the field, or in or above the team area (Rule 2-31-1). (Exceptions:

1. Camera equipment attached to a goal support behind the uprights and crossbar.

2. A camera, with no audio component, may be attached to the cap of the umpire with prior approval of the umpire and the participating teams. 3. A camera, with no audio component, may be attached to cables that extend over the team area and field of play, including the end zones.

d. Microphones attached to coaches during the game for media transmission are prohibited.

e. No one in the team area or coaching box may use any artificial sound amplification to communicate with players on the field.

f. Any attempt to record, either through audio or video means, any signals given by an opposing player, coach or other team personnel is prohibited.

REPORT & SANCTION -
Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Prohibited field equipment used. Recording opponent's signals.

Coaches' Phones

ARTICLE 12. Coaches' phones and headsets are not subject to the rules before or during the game.

Referee microphone

ARTICLE 13. A microphone is strongly recommended for the referee to be used for all game announcements. It is strongly recommended that it be a lapel-type microphone. The microphone must be controlled by the referee. It may not be open at other times. Microphones on other officials are prohibited.

SECTION 5. Medical Provision

Minimum Medical Requirements

ARTICLE 1. The minimum medical facilities during a game are:

a. A registered doctor, registered nurse, registered paramedic, registered physiotherapist or a first aider must be available. This person must not be a squad member.

b. A first aid kit including a suitable (preferably inflatable) set of limb splints must be available.

c. A stretcher must be available.

d. An ambulance and crew must be available if a doctor or paramedic is not. An ambulance is defined to be a vehicle constructed and equipped for the purpose of carrying stretcher-bound patients to hospital. (A.R. 1-5-1:I-X)

e. A telephone capable of use to summon the emergency services must be available. (A.R. 1-5-1:XI)

NOTE: Available means inside or immediately outside the stadium and fit for use (Exception: An ambulance and its crew are defined to be available at a game even though they may be absent from the stadium in the act of transporting someone to hospital.)

STOP, REPORT & SANCTION -
Under no circumstances may the game commence, nor proceed if suspended. Competitions may define sanctions for the following breaches: Minimum medical requirement not met.

Approved Ruling 1-5-1

  1. The sole ambulance is absent from the stadium in the act of transporting someone to hospital. A registered doctor, registered nurse, registered paramedic, registered physiotherapist or a first aider, a first aid kit including a suitable (preferably inflatable) set of limb splints, and a stretcher are all available. RULING: The minimum medical requirement is met; the game shall proceed. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  2. The game manager says that the ambulance is on its way and will be here 10 minutes after the appointed kickoff time. RULING: Unless a doctor or paramedic is available, delay the kickoff until the ambulance arrives. Until it does no one can be sure that it is "available". There will be no yardage penalty if the delay is beyond game management's control. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  3. The ambulance leaves to take an injured player to hospital. RULING: The game carries on. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  4. The ambulance leaves to take a spectator to hospital. RULING: The game carries on. The rule says that the ambulance is still available if it is in the act of transporting someone to hospital. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  5. The ambulance leaves to take someone to hospital but does not leave behind at the stadium a first aid kit or stretcher. RULING: Suspend the game until a suitable first aid kit and stretcher can be obtained, or the ambulance returns. Note that this is the case even if a doctor or paramedic is available. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  6. The ambulance leaves and takes all the qualified first aiders with it. RULING: Suspend the game until the ambulance returns, or another qualified first aider can be found (game management's responsibility to decide whether they are suitable). [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  7. The ambulance crew phone the stadium to say that on their way back to the game their vehicle broke down and they can't make it. RULING: Suspend the game unless a doctor or paramedic is available. The ambulance is no longer "available" to the game. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  8. If the game is suspended because of lack of medical provision, how long do you wait before abandoning the game? RULING: Rule 13-4-8-c applies: "The referee shall wait for a reasonable time to permit the problem(s) to be rectified. However, if it becomes clear that the game cannot continue, the referee shall abandon the game and notify game management." A reasonable time would be at least 30 minutes but probably not longer than an hour unless there was a clear indication that a resumption was imminent. Of course don't wait 30 minutes if it is obvious that a restart is never going to be possible. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  9. A first-aider has a PhD and therefore the title "Dr", but has no medical qualifications beyond a first-aid certificate. Is an ambulance necessary? RULING: Yes. A registered doctor means one registered with the General Medical Council. People with the title "Dr" do not necessarily possess the required medical qualifications. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  10. A doctor or paramedic is available, along with an ambulance. However, the ambulance is NOT equipped to carry stretcher-bound patients to hospital. RULING: The game may proceed. The availability of the doctor or paramedic means that the ambulance is not necessary to meet the minimum medical requirement. [Cited by 1-5-1-d]
  11. A mobile telephone is available, but due to poor reception conditions a reliable signal cannot be obtained. RULING: The game cannot proceed until either another mobile telephone with a better signal is found, or a working land-line telephone inside or immediately outside the stadium is available. [Cited by 1-5-1-e]

Medical Requirement Administration

ARTICLE 2. a. Game management is responsible for the provision of medical facilities that meet the requirements of Rule 1-5-1.

b. The senior game management representative shall certify to the referee prior to the game that the medical requirement has been met.

c. Game management shall inform the referee if at any stage during the game the medical requirement ceases to be met. The game will then be suspended (Rule 3-3-3-b).


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Editor: Jim Briggs, BAFA/BAFRA Rules Committee
rules@britishamericanfootball.org